Egyptian texts mention two bodies of water on Egypt's eastern frontier with Sinai, š-ḥr and p3 twfy, the latter of which is mentioned in connection the Exodus (yam sûp), while the former occurs in Jeremiah 2:18. Recent paleo-environmental work conducted by the North Sinai Archaeological Project, which was in the field from 1998-2008 and directed by me, has shed new light on these bodies of water and the roles they played for the biblical events involving entering a departing Egypt. The 2019 publication of the geological data now allows one to offer some insights into these ancient lakes. Supplemented by new archaeological discoveries, elements of routes of both journeys can be elucidated.
James Hoffmeier is Emeritus Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology and Old Testament Studies, Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.
Dr. Hoffmeier has directed the North Sinai Archaeological Project that is devoted to researching and studying Egypt’s frontier during the New Kingdom and how this area may relate to the Israelite exodus from Egypt. Investigations at Tell el-Borg began in 1999, and concluded in 2008.
Hoffmeier has consulted for and appeared in a number of TV programs on Egypt and the Bible for the Discovery Channel, the Learning Channel, the History Channel and National Geographic. He is the author of numerous articles and books, including his most recent book The Immigration Crisis: Immigration, Aliens and the Bible (Wheaton: Crossway, 2009).